CMC Classroom design team!!

Hey there…

I have happy news to report!! I’ve accepted Suzanne Dean’s invitation to join her on the Color Me Creative Classroom Design Team!!

Yup – Suzanne is the one with all the You-tube videos on Copic Coloring!!! I’ve got my 1st exposure (and my addiction) to Copics markers watching her videos. Thank you Suzanne and the CMC team for being my enabler…hugs!! But in all seriousness, I am so in awe and humbled to be designing alongside these amazingly talented ladies … check out their coloring on their blogs!!! They make it an art form …

Charlene Randall – Team Lead

Brook Guinn – Sr Designer

Anary Baumgarth – Sr Designer

Melanie LaBelle – Sr Designer

Marie Gamber – Sr Designer

Ruby McGuire – Sr Designer

Pat St. Martin – Sr Designer

Jenn Cochran – Sr Designer

Michele Spera – Sr Designer

Sandie Dunne – Sr Designer

Andi Murdock – Jr Designer

Hazel Parr – Jr Designer

Shelby Goolsby – Jr Designer

Suzanne Foard – Jr Designer

Dana Joy – Jr Designer

Renkata Pacheva – Jr Designer

Thank you for giving me the opportunity. I’m looking forward to learning from you all.


“Punny” Sentiment

Good morning!

I am so enjoying these challenges at Tuesday Throwdown – In addition, I get to try all these new stamps from our sponsors that I now discover I need.

This week at the Throwdown, our challenge is “Punny” sentiment. Come up with a sentiment that is a pun on the image.

Our sponsor is Digi with Attitude. I used Clipper the Crab image – no points what my play on the word is for this card. Here it is:

Clipper was colored using Copic Markers (r05, r27, yr23, yr24, e13, e15, e17); I used Sakura glazed pen to give Clipper some spots. Ground and sky were also drawn in using Copic Markers (E04, E11, E13, E15, E17, E50, E53, E87, BG000, colorless blender).

A special Thank you to Crissy Armstrong for giving me inspiration for the card.

Challenge entered:

Stamp Something


Patterned papers = better than sliced bread

They make everything look pretty and finished. I found these new papers from Authentique Paper and I just cannot get enough of it. I have used it on a present I just wrapped,  on my daughter’s scrapbook layout and now on my I Heart {Ippity} Love card.

Here it is …

Bottom front of card was shaped using Sizzix on-the-edge bracket die. Petaloo Color Me Crazy Flower was airbrushed with Copic markers (R22, R24, R27, R29); Ribbon is from May Arts; stamped label is from Ippity – A Moment In Time set and metal letters from Making Memories (now discontinued).

Thanks for stopping by.

Challenges entered:

Cute Card Thursday

Color Me Creative

Fussy and Fancy Challenge

Unity Challenge

Ippity Linky Party


Do my own landscape – nah!

Never would I have imagined that I would be doing my own landscape – on a card of course. (really please – what are you thinking – me and a shovel? Pigs will roll over laughing.)

Have to try it once – I repeat that about half a dozen times with my 5 yr old. So here it is – if you don’t like it, you can spit it out – just not at me.

Patterned papers are from Fancy Pants and I used Copic Markers (ground: E37, E31, E50; grass: G94, G24, G21, G20, sky: B00, C0; Tilda: E31, E25, E29, YR04, E00, E21, B93, B95, B97, RV91, RV95, RV99, YG91, YG93, YG95, E25, R29, Y18, G17). Wow! Didn’t realize how many markers I used. Oh and the colorless blender of course.

Thanks Fluff for indulging my marker addiction and adding 26 more to my collection.

Challenge entered:

Copic Creations

Stamping Scrapping Challenge Central

Tuesday Throwdown

Stamp Something

Pile It On

Magnolia Stamp Lovers

By The Cute And Girly

Magnolia-licious Highlites

One Crazy Stamper


Book Review: Coloring Techniques for Card Making

Before I begin this book review, how do you like the new look of my blog? The old pink was just getting too much for me – it was giving me heartburn. So here is a cleaner slate to start a new month and a new post … here goes:

This book is well laid out and it outlines various coloring medium options that opened my eyes beyond my repertoire of watercolor pencils and Copic markers for coloring.

The book is organized by the 3 broad and different coloring techniques:

1) Colored-pencils Techniques

2) Watercolor Techniques

3) Marker Techniques

Within each technique, the author also covers how to use different coloring tools to color. For instance, to achieve watercolor techniques (in section 2), you can use reinkers, ink pads, distress ink, water color pencils, water color crayons, alcohol inks to achieve the water color effect!! It didn’t even occur to me to use more than just water color pencils.

In addition, the author provides step by step instructions on how to used each coloring tool and showcases various projects done of that technique. She also talks about which paper is suitable for each coloring medium.

There could be better photos distinguishing the overall look of the technique used and but I just love how organized the book is laid out and it certainly helps me focus on the technique that I would love to learn more. Great reference for beginners!

And a bonus: I am giving this book away in my blog candy – so put your name in the blue froggy thingy and win this book.


Shaped Card

Here is a shaped card I made with Tilda – I believe she is Hula Hoop Tilda from the Rainbow Collection but she has been aptly renamed by a family member as disco Tilda. The stars on the background is a digi stamp from the Meljen Design collection.

She is such a girly girl card I had to add all the bling I could on her – on the stars, the hula hoop and her hair. Too bad I can’t get glitter to show too well on photo. If anyone has a tip, please share.

Thanks and enjoy Disco Tilda.

Challenges entered:

Simon Says Stamps

Magnolia-licious Highlites


Matching Sets

Good morning peeps!

I’d like to share a set of 3 pictures I colored, decorated and framed for a matching set of gifts.

The 1st is Crissy Armstrong’s BBQ Bart that I shared in a previous post – after creating it, I decided it looked too nice that I had to frame it.

The 2nd is also an image from the Crissy Armstrong collection – Jelly Bean the Elephant, decorated and framed in matching background from the Authentique Paper collection.

The 3rd image is from Meljen’s design – Cat and Mouse.

All images are colored using Copic Markers and pattern papers are from Authentique Paper – they are a gift for my sister-in-law who has been kind enough to watch my kids while I craft and blog about it.


Challenges entered:

Tuesday Throwdown

Meljen Challenge

Stamp Something

Our Creative Corner


Tags and bookmarks

Tags are very easy and quick to make and they make wonderful simply gifts. I enjoy making these and I wonder why I never seem to make enough of these.

Here are 2 I just made as gifts.










I enjoyed drawing part of the background grass and cobblestone too – it was a fun, no pressure way to doodle.

Challenge entered:

The Pink Elephant

A Spoonful of Sugar

Magnolia Down Under

Color Me Creative

Magnolia Stamp Lovers


Delicious purple card …

I haven’t used purple, especially darker purple, much on cards just because I find darker cards harder to photograph. But when my sister-in-law asked for a purple card, I thought I’d give it a try to see if I could pull of a darker purple card.  Here it is …

I am surprised and how rich and warm it looks and I love how rugged yet soft it looks when paired with khaki green. I guess I will be using more of this color combo.

Here are the details for the card:

- Patterned paper is from Die Cut with a View.

- Tilda (magnolia Stamps) is colored with Copic Markers,

- Ribbon and flowers are from Offray.

- Tag was die cut with Spellbinders and stamped with Country Charms labels from Flourishes; sentiment is from Hero Arts.

Stay cool in this 100F heat.

Challenge entered:

Magnolia Stamp Lovers

Simon Says Stamp

Just Magnolia

Fussy and Fancy

Magnolia-licious Highlites

Shabby Tea Room

Cute Card Thursday

Meljen Challenge


I’m in love …

This is the image that makes my heart melt and remind me of my little baby girl (although she denies being my baby elephant). It is illustrated by Crissy Armstrong – and she is having a DT call this month. I get Crissy’s images from Whimsy stamps and they are having a 25% off digi sale this month (although this specific “Baby of Mine” image is only in rubber.)


Patterned papers are from the new Authentique collection. Swiss dot paper was embossed using the Cuttlebug textured folder.Shapes were cut using Spellbinders Nestabilities dies. Image was colored using Copic Markers. Sentiment is from Crafter’s Companion – Popcorn the Bear Collection. Flowers are from Prima, pearls are from Hero Arts and the “baby” clip is from Making Memories.

Challenge entered:

Sundays with Crissy

Shabby Tea Room

A Spoonful of Sugar

Copic Creations

Inspiration Emporium

Simon Says Stamp

The Pink Elephant

Cheery Lynn Designs – DT Call

7 Kids College Fund Challenge


BBQ Bart …

Summer is the time our family grill out quite a bit at our house or at friends’ houses. I’ve been looking for a fun card for such grilling events – either to thank our friends for having us over or to invite them to our house.  BBQ Bart that Crissy Armstrong has drawn is so perfect. So here he is.

I have always colored Bart with Copic markers – but my coloring of him has always been rather flat. Recently, I found that Crissy actually did an amazing tutorial on her website about how she created scales on Bart and her coloring of Bart is absolutely divine. So I’m going to try and give Bart some life by trying out Crissy’s blender pen scales effect. I hope it brings some justice to Crissy’s awesome illustration.

And don’t forget to try out for Crissy’s Team – click here for more info.

Added on July 14 @ 10.30pm – Bart Take 2:

I love coloring Bart so much I decided to color him again – in pink – just to see if he looked nice as a girl (sorry Crissy, I changed his gender). And this time, I also gave him a pina colada. Here he/she is …

Challenge entered:

Sundays with Crissy – DT Call

Meljen Challenge

Color Me Creative

Pile it on – blender pen scales

Simon Says Stamp

Tuesday Throwdown

Fussy and Fancy Challenge

Copic Creations

The Shabby Tea Room

Simon Says Stamp

Pile It On



White is not white enough …

Hello bloggers,

It’s tough for me to get out of holiday mode – after our long 4th of July weekend. Oh, I did make cards – that’s not the tough part. The tough part was dragging myself to the computer after 3 glorious sunny days!! (we don’t get much of those in MN)

Anyhow, I attempted a couple new things I had never dared venture in cardmaking – using the sewing machine on my card (there is a long story in there about about paper getting stuck and burning up the sewing machine engine that I will not get into) and coloring white clothing (I use to think why bother coloring white – the paper is white – but I stand corrected by my Copic instructor).

Here is the card that had both sewing and coloring white.

Tilda’s white clothes were colored with B0000, B21 and C0, her wings were B21 with clear Atyou Spica pen ad her tights were R0000 and R01. Colorless blender was used on all 3 areas to lighten areas to white. The oval frame was distressed using blue chalk pencils. The Warm wishes sentiment is from Impression Obsession sentiments II set. I love how versatile that set is.

I’d love pointers if you are successful in both areas.

Challenge entered:

Magnolia-licious Highlites

Copic Creations

Tuesday Throwndown

Simon Says Stamp

Totally Tilda


Spoonful of Sugar

Meljen’s Challenge

Impression Obsession

Our Creative Corner


Book Review: Copic Coloring Guide

I am doing a series of book reviews on my blog on some of my recent craft book purchases. Today, I’m reviewing the Copic Coloring Guide by Marianne Walker & Colleen Schaan. The book just came out in June 2011 and I just finished reading it – cover to cover – yes, I’m obsessed like that.

Well, let’s just say, I’m glad it came out but I’m mildly disappointed with it. Specifically, I’m glad because there are 16 pages in the book dedicated to coloring techniques (ie. inking and blending techniques, how to use your colors and colorless blender to create specific looks). This was expanded in the project area where I am surprised how frequently the transfer blending was used as opposed to coloring it directly on the paper (on paper blending). No wonder my work is just not looking as refined as these “artists”, even if I have been through the certification program.

I’m disappointed because out of a 63 page book (yes, this one is magazine-sized), there was only 18 pages dedicated to teaching you to color!! (Really, 11 pages – after you take away 7 pages of product introduction.) The rest of the book was all the other different cards from contributing artists – just like every other idea book out there. If I hadn’t read it cover-to-cover and line-to-line, I wouldn’t have discovered how these artists use their markers to create their cards. 63 pages just to make 1 discovery. Couldn’t each artists describe at greater length their coloring techniques?? (instead of step by step instruction of HOW they made the cards)

It’s a nice to have book; not a must-have.

And here is something positive to end the review – I found some nice color family that I could add to my personal Copic color book.


My Copic Color Swatch Book

One of the things I learnt from my Copic Certification Program is to write down any colors you use (especially the ones that you like) because you will not remember when it comes to recreating it for the next card. My Copic instructor, Debbie Olson, even brought her Copic Color Book for a show-and-tell and it is a truly astounding resource.

So, based on Debbie’s advice, I created my own Copic Color book. Mine’s obviously not as filled out as hers but I plan to fill it out as I discover colors I like.

I created 13 sections – 10 sections for each Copic color family; and the last 3 sections are for hair, skin and fur colors (imagine blond, brunette, black, red hair variations; Caucasian, Asian, African-American, Native American skin tone and all the different bear/dog fur colors – you will have enough favorites for them to have their own section.)

FYI – there are companies out there who have already coordinated nicely blended colors in each colors family – Papertrey Ink, Just Rite Stamps, Flourishes, to name a few on my radar screen. Try out those colors as a starting point for your book.


Quick 30 Minutes Handmade Cards

What is better on a hot summer day and an ice cold slice of watermelon? An ice cold bowl of sweet cherries in an air conditioned room of course … yum!

Here is my sweet bowl of cherries colored with Copic markers in my air conditioned craft room. Thank goodness for modern amenities!

I had always only used my colorless blender to fix mistakes but this is the 1st time I am using it to draw the colors away from the bowl to create more highlights. I like how it turned out – I think the colorless blender is going to be my new best friend.

Stamps are from Unity Stamps Company. Copic markers used are R35, R20, BG72, BG75, 0. Scalloped square is punched using Marvy Uchida Extra Giga Scalloped Square punch. This is my less-than-30 minutes, quick and easy card.

Challenge entered:

Sunday’s with Crissy

I also wanted to share another quick and easy card that I have submitted for various other challenges in the past and will send this for The Pink Elephant challenge this week.

Background is stamped with Impression Obsession Cover-a-card Wavy Lines and embellished with Hero Arts crystal gemstones. Foreground is embossed with Sizzix textured impressions embossing folder – wedding set #2 set on core’dinations black cardstock.

Stay cool in this 100F heat …


June Papertrey Blog Hop

This is going to sound crazy – I got up at 3am last night and I thought I should try spray painting glue and adding sparkly sprinkles on it to see if I would get a raised 3D glittery effect. But I guess I couldn’t find glue I could spray paint at that hour so I tried spraying mulberry paper with sparkly ink just to see what kind of effect I’d get.

Here is the result (of course I had to mount it on a card) …

Mulberry paper was sprayed using Tattered Angel Glimmer Mist – Viva Pink, Electric Blue, Black Magic, Glacier, Peach Delight and Olive Vine. The effect was strangely gratifying when the colors melded together to create new colors! Impression Obsession Victorian House image was stamped on Papertrey Ink Stampers Select White Cardstock. I outlined the roof line with Copic Atyou Spica Glitter Pen – Silver and background behind the house was shaded with Copic marker BV0000.

Let me know what you think.

Challenge entered:

One Crazy Stamper


Copic Markers – Testing cardstock

I promised I would share more about what I learnt from my Copic Certification Program, so I’m starting with my 1st major takeaway about paper and how to test which one works for you.

The basic understanding to know is how ink will move on paper.

  • It will bleed through (or saturate) almost all paper. The thicker the paper, the less bleed through you will get.
  • It will feather across the paper (feathering is when you color to line and the ink still moves beyond the line).

Bleed through is not an indication of how good the paper is, only how thick it is and how much ink you will need to use to get a good blend. On the other hand, you will want a paper that feathers minimally so you don’t spend hours carefully coloring an image to have it “ooze” outside the lines.

Here are the steps to test a paper:

1) On the paper you are testing, draw a circle with your Copic multiliner (or stamp one with your memento ink)

2) Pick a light and dark shade marker (I picked YR02 & YR 07)
3) Color your circle with the light shade (YR02 in my example) carefully to the line

  • if your colors seep outside the line, test another paper; if not, move to step 4.

4) Flick on a darker shade (YR07 in my example) on half of the circle

  • if your colors seep outside the line, test another paper; if not, move to step 5.

5) Go back with lighter shade (YR02) and blend it, any feathering would be more pronounced with a darker color and with all the blending work you have done.

  • if your colors seep outside the line, test another paper; if not, move to step 6.

6) Let your work dry a little for a few minutes and touch the colored area with the chiselled tip of a colorless blender (0)

  • ideally, you should see a crisp lighten shape of your chiselled tip instead of a fuzzy blob of lighten shape where your colorless blender touched. A crisp line will allow you more control when using your colorless blender to create texture and correct mistake.

A paper that would be good to use will have met all testing steps, giving you most control over your coloring.

Here are the papers I tested:

I found that I like Papertrey Ink Stamper’s Select and Copic X-Press It Blending card the best.

Papertrey Ink Stamper Select White ($0.15/sheet) is the thickest of the lot I tested, it took more ink to evenly saturate my circle and blend my colors – the higher saturation point of the paper works for me because it gives me time to work. I like that the colors remained very vibrant and almost true to the original colors I picked out. The same can be said with the Copic X-press It blending card. The colorless blender also left a crisp shape.

Copic X-Press It Blending card ($0.36/sheet) is also a fairly thick paper – not as thick as Papertrey, but about the same thickness as the Gina K 120# and Cryogen 84# and 89# – but it has a very smooth finish that allows the ink to stay on the surface a lot longer so it blends the best of all. I tend to be a bit “heavy-handed” when laying down ink, so with the smooth finish, my coloring started pitting a little as well because there was so much ink on the surface of the paper, which I kinda like because it looked like my image has some unintentional texture.

Gina K Pure Luxury White (80# & 120#) ($0.19 & $0.28/sheet) also as a similar smooth finish as the Copic X-press It Blending Card which I love. But was a bit softer and more absorbent than the Copic X-express It Blending Card, hence the colors looked more saturated and there was more marginally more feathering. 80# feathered more and saturated faster than the 120# but blended better – it looked more natural. The colorless blender marker was not quite as crisp as the Papertrey and Copic X-press It.

Cryogen White Curious Metallics cardstock (84# & 89#) ($0.34/sheet) was the only one that is slightly off-white and has a shimmer to the paper. I love the shimmer – wonderful “texture” to my coloring but I did not like the off-white color – I lost some highlighting potential because it wasn’t bright white. It does blend well with minimal feathering. It is a fairly soft paper and colors absorbed pretty quickly into the paper and the end result of my coloring seem significantly darker and more intense (almost cartoony dark). 89# didn’t absorb quick as quickly as 84#.

Bazzill Smoothies Coconut Swirl ($.23/sheet) also feathered quite a bit for me. It started feathering just after I laid on my darker colors before I even started blending.

Neenah Classic Crest Solar White (80# & 120#) ($0.12/sheet) performed the worst for me because it is so soft and absorbent and it saturated and feather before I even finished coloring my circle. I’m a slow worker.

My bottom line is, you have to learn the properties of the paper you are using. Any paper can give you the results you want as long as you learn where the saturation point of that paper is. That means practicing and testing with different paper to find one that fits your style.


Father’s Day Card … with a skirt on

This is the Father’s Day card my husband would be getting this year from his 11/2 yr old daughter and his 5 yr old son.

Making something in my craft room always relaxes me but this is a card that made me think.

Would any self-respecting man like to get this card?? Probably not. But would a dad like to get this card from his little girlie girl who thinks a card should wear a skirt – I know he would.

Then I contemplated even longer and harder whether I should post it on my blog AND submit it for a challenge – my reputation as a card maker/designer is at stake here if I put this out there and call it a masculine card. My kids are thrilled with this card, my husband would be tickled pink to receive it so why shouldn’t I be happy to give it to a man?

So I’m done thinking about this card and here is a shout out to all the craftswomen out there – who cares if your masculine card has some ribbon on it or a fancy flourish … Art should be fun and I love my fun, bordering on ridiculous looking, card.

Enjoy and have a Happy Father’s Day!

Details of the card:

Background was inked with Ranger Distressed Ink – Mustard Seed & Wild Honey. Popcorn the Bear is from Crafter’s Companion & sentiment is from Impression Obsession Clear stamp set – sentiments II. Popcorn the Bear was colored with Copic Markers (E31, E35, E50, E53, R20, Rv11, YG11, YG13, YG17, B21, B24, B29, B00, G03, G05, G07, E07, E37, E71, E74).

Challenge enter:

Impression Obsession

One Crazy Stamper


Lessons from Copic Certification Program.

Good morning!

Wow!! The Copic Certification Designer Program was very intense and rigorous … in a good way. Almost 8 hours of listening, testing papers, ink, blending and airbrushing techniques and loads of information. More than you could ever get off the tutorials and YouTube videos on the internet. There are alot of information on the internet that gives you an overview and basic level of information. This program goes beyond that basic information and really arms you with more in-depth information that you can actually teach someone and I left with the intense curiosity to try out more papers and practice all those techniques I learnt.

Here are my major takeaways. Please watch for future posts of specific tutorials because there is simply too much information to put in 1 post.

1) Product Basics (Marker, Paper & Inks):

- There are 2 ways ink will move on a paper: saturate (or soak through) a paper and feather across the paper (or the image line). Soaking/bleeding through a paper is not necessarily an indication of a good or bad paper. Because a thicker paper will not bleed through as much as a thinner paper.

- You have to learned the properties of the paper you are using. Any paper will give you the results you want as long as you learn where the saturation point of that paper is. While other artist may like 1 paper over another, you have to find the paper that suits your coloring style (e.g. how “heavy-handed” you are with coloring). Before the program, Neenah Solar White paper was the paper that came highly recommended to me by others but I found that no matter how careful I was, my colors keep feathering outside the line and I kept over saturating the paper. I found that the thicker paper like Papertrey Ink Stampers Select and the Copic X-press It Blending card works best for my coloring. You just have to try it and find your own.

2) Coloring, Blending & Color Theory:

- Color values (light tone, mid tone or dark tone) is what makes an object realistic – doesn’t matter what color you choose. A purple apple will look realistic if you use a right value – everyone will know it’s an apple, not a round circle or a purple blob.

For more details of the Copic numbering system, see the Copic website.

- Any color that is too vibrant or intense can be muted with grays, follow the Copic Color Wheel to determine which grays to use.

: Y/YG – use W grays

: G/BG – use T grays

: B/BV – use N grays

: V/RV – use C grays

: YR/R – use T grays

You get more than 346 colors if you add grays to your arsenal.

- 4 different blending techniques for different detail level of image and blending different colors.

3) Mixed Media, Ink & Airbrushing:

- You can do so much more with the colorless blender (and the refill) beyond just correcting your mistakes. There is a whole world of texturing you can do to your colored image using a bit of fabric and blender solution. Imagine your little stamped person with real imprint of jeans textured into your jean color!

- ABS 1 is the kit to get – it’s portable with room to grow into a compressor with just a larger hose; ABS 2 is solely a portable kit with 15 mins of air; ABS 3 is solely an air compressor kit.

4) Shading:

- Just get Marianne Walker’s Shadows & Shading book. It will tell you where to put your light, mid and dark tones & where the shadow should go for different shaped objects.

Did I say this program is intense!! It is well worth the investment and it certainly open my eyes to the world of artistry.

Many thanks to Debbie Olson and Lori Craig for taking the time to share your amazing talents.

And last but not least, here is a picture of my goodie bag.


Copic Certification …

Hello bloggers … tomorrow is the Copic Certification Designer Program in Minneapolis that I am attending!!!! Woohooo!!! I have been counting down to this day for the last 2 months and I suppose I should share a little about what it is. Here is the information taken from the Copic Marker website.

Copic Certified Designer Program Overview

The Copic Certification program is designed for papercrafters, scrapbookers, and rubber stampers. This one-day intensive program is available for teachers, store owners, and designers who wish to learn diverse applications for Copic products with the intent of sharing them with their classes, stores, workshops, or through their designs. The class is technique based and no finished projects will be produced.

All of the training you receive as a Copic Certified designer is intended to be shared with others. Once you are a Copic Certified Designer you will be listed above through our Copic Certified Instructor Search. Here people will be able to search for Certified Designers in their area.

For a complete list of where the classes will be held, please visit the Copic Marker website.

I currently have 150 Copic Sketch markers and I just love how the Copic Markers work for me – they blend so well they make my work look like a professional artist, when I know I’m not. I also love that the inks are alcohol-based – which means they stay fast on other non-paper medium like fabric, metals, plastic and whatever surface you use. Excellent from a mixed medium artwork perspective.

They are a little pricey, ranging from $4.15-$9 a marker but I have found that Oozak has the best price online – make sure you check the “member” price … membership does have its privileges. (or you can try your luck on Ebay). And best of all, they are refillable, the nibs replaceable and they also attach to an airbrush system – you never need another marker again.

I love my Copics and will definitely post more after the class.